Archive for March, 2012


In the post-war Poland run by the communists, Warsaw insurgents, along with other AK soldiers, are accused of collaboration with the Germans and are called fascists. According to official propaganda, it was first and foremost the people’s army that fought against the Germans, while the London underground stood with their arms at their sides. Propaganda attacks from the first years after the war change in Stalinist times into attempts to erase the rising from social memory .it is forbidden to pay homage to the rising. Anniversaries are not to be celebrated nor are statues erected. It is not allowed include  military ranks or insurgent unit names in obituaries of those who pass away.

The mere fact of having taken part in the rising may become a reason foe arrest by the security office .such was the fate of many soldiers from the Zoska Battalion or the Radoslaw group with the commander col Jan mazurkiewicz, who was sentenced to many years of prison. Insurgents are frequently put in the same cells as German war criminals.

After 1956, communist authorities change their attitude towards the AK soldiers .their conspirational activity is no longer excuse for direct persecution. However, the press history textbooks, novels and films are still full of lies and concealments concerning the rising .it remains prohibited to erect statues of the rising or commemorate its commanders. The first plaques commemorating insurgents units their commanders are placed in churches.  A spontaneous form of paying homage is born –every year on August 1 crowds of varsovians meet at the powazki cemetery to visit the quarters used by insurgent groups.in their propaganda, the authorities of the polish people republic will continue to distinguish until 1989 between heroic ordinary soldiers and their cynical irresponsible and clumsy commanders who ignited the rising only to defend the interests of the London government and the proprietary classes

An entry in the Encyclopaedia of the second world war published in 1975 is a perfect illustration of such way of thinking. It says, the AK was an organisation with the structure inappropriate for the needs of the on-going fight against the German occupants but instead intended to ensure that the government-in-exile could take over power in the country through a popular uprising. Its command gathered significant part of the patriotic forces and especially youngsters unaware of this organisation political aims. The AK Command slowed down the armed struggle in accordance with the allies’ policy of the two enemies (Germany and the USSR). During the occupation, they conducted a policy of protection of the interests of the bourgeoisie and landowners.

Advertisements

The European Commission says it may legislate to get more women into top management jobs in Europe because companies are too slow to improve the gender balance.

The EU’s Justice Commissioner, Viviane Reding, said “self-regulation so far has not brought about satisfactory results” for women.

A year ago Ms Reding invited European firms to sign a voluntary pledge to appoint more women to their boardrooms.

But only 24 firms signed it, she said.

Ms Reding launched a public consultationon Monday to generate initiatives – including possible legislation – aimed at redressing the gender imbalance.

Just one in seven board members at Europe’s top firms – 13.7% – is a woman, the European Commission says.

It is a slight improvement on the 11.8% in 2010, but the Commission says that at the current rate it would take more than 40 years to reach a “significant gender balance” – at least 40% of both sexes.

“I am not a great fan of quotas. However, I like the results they bring,” Ms Reding said.

“I believe it is high time that Europe breaks the glass ceiling that continues to bar female talent from getting to the top in Europe’s listed companies. I will work closely with the European Parliament and all member states to bring about change.”

The Commission says there are big differences between EU countries on the gender issue, with women making up 27% of boards in the largest Finnish companies and 26% in Latvia, but only 3% in Malta and 4% in Cyprus.

Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain are among the countries that have introduced gender quotas for companies.