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On September 1, 1939, in accordance with the Ribbentrop-Molotow pact signed in August 1939, which divided Poland between the aggressors on the line of the rivers Narew, Wisla and San, the Third Reich attacks Poland by land, sea and air. Yet another world war becomes a reality.

On September 3, France and Great Britain, in alliance with Poland, declare war on Germany, but do not get militarily involved despite determined resistance; the overwhelming German forces quickly advance, crushing the polish army on their way. On September 6, the polish army is ordered to retreat behind the Wisla-San Line, and a day later Germans reach Warsaw. On September 17, 1939, the Soviet Union joins Germany, Violating former agreements with Poland “If there is no government- Polish Ambassador Waclaw Grzybowski is told in Moscow”. After the Soviet aggression, subsequent points of resistance fall, the last regular troops of the Polish Army under the command of Gen. Franciszek Kleeberg surrender near Kock (place) on October 5, 1939.

The occupation begins. Its cruelty exceeds everything that poles have experienced over past centuries of Prussian and Russian servitude. On the basis of the pact signed on September 28, the two occupants divide the territory of Poland into two approximately equal parts. On October 12, Germans create the “General Government of the occupied Polish Territory “covering an area of 98 thousand Km and divided into four districts Krakow, Radom, Lublin and Warsaw. The Soviets incorporate the seized territory into the Ukrainian and Byelorussian soviet Republics. Lithuania is granted the Wilno District, and part of the polish Carpathians is incorporated into Slovakia.

Both occupants introduce the policy of extermination of polish leaders. From the very first days there are numerous carefully planned deportations, expulsions, various types of Persecution, Administrative harassments and executions. The Requisition of private property becomes common. Food Supply disturbances threaten the biological existence of the whole nation. For the smallest offenses one can be punished with death, imprisonment or internment in a concentration camp. The first camp – Stutthof – is established as early as 1939. The existing social and moral order collapses. Polish syllabuses are forbidden and on the German-Occupied territory school education is limited to an absolute minimum.

The soviets try to keep up appearances by allowing Polish as the language of instruction – but in return there is intense communist indoctrination. On the areas occupied by the Germans, Jews are particularly persecuted. The Germans force them to live in Ghettos: the first was created in October 1939 in Piotrkow Trybunalski, the next in Lodz in 1940, and yet another in October 1940 in Warsaw. Starting in December 1942, The Germans murder Jews in extermination camps in Chelmno, Sobibor, Belzec, Treblinka, and Auschwitz-Birkenau.


In the post-war Poland run by the communists, Warsaw insurgents, along with other AK soldiers, are accused of collaboration with the Germans and are called fascists. According to official propaganda, it was first and foremost the people’s army that fought against the Germans, while the London underground stood with their arms at their sides. Propaganda attacks from the first years after the war change in Stalinist times into attempts to erase the rising from social memory .it is forbidden to pay homage to the rising. Anniversaries are not to be celebrated nor are statues erected. It is not allowed include  military ranks or insurgent unit names in obituaries of those who pass away.

The mere fact of having taken part in the rising may become a reason foe arrest by the security office .such was the fate of many soldiers from the Zoska Battalion or the Radoslaw group with the commander col Jan mazurkiewicz, who was sentenced to many years of prison. Insurgents are frequently put in the same cells as German war criminals.

After 1956, communist authorities change their attitude towards the AK soldiers .their conspirational activity is no longer excuse for direct persecution. However, the press history textbooks, novels and films are still full of lies and concealments concerning the rising .it remains prohibited to erect statues of the rising or commemorate its commanders. The first plaques commemorating insurgents units their commanders are placed in churches.  A spontaneous form of paying homage is born –every year on August 1 crowds of varsovians meet at the powazki cemetery to visit the quarters used by insurgent their propaganda, the authorities of the polish people republic will continue to distinguish until 1989 between heroic ordinary soldiers and their cynical irresponsible and clumsy commanders who ignited the rising only to defend the interests of the London government and the proprietary classes

An entry in the Encyclopaedia of the second world war published in 1975 is a perfect illustration of such way of thinking. It says, the AK was an organisation with the structure inappropriate for the needs of the on-going fight against the German occupants but instead intended to ensure that the government-in-exile could take over power in the country through a popular uprising. Its command gathered significant part of the patriotic forces and especially youngsters unaware of this organisation political aims. The AK Command slowed down the armed struggle in accordance with the allies’ policy of the two enemies (Germany and the USSR). During the occupation, they conducted a policy of protection of the interests of the bourgeoisie and landowners.

The European Commission says it may legislate to get more women into top management jobs in Europe because companies are too slow to improve the gender balance.

The EU’s Justice Commissioner, Viviane Reding, said “self-regulation so far has not brought about satisfactory results” for women.

A year ago Ms Reding invited European firms to sign a voluntary pledge to appoint more women to their boardrooms.

But only 24 firms signed it, she said.

Ms Reding launched a public consultationon Monday to generate initiatives – including possible legislation – aimed at redressing the gender imbalance.

Just one in seven board members at Europe’s top firms – 13.7% – is a woman, the European Commission says.

It is a slight improvement on the 11.8% in 2010, but the Commission says that at the current rate it would take more than 40 years to reach a “significant gender balance” – at least 40% of both sexes.

“I am not a great fan of quotas. However, I like the results they bring,” Ms Reding said.

“I believe it is high time that Europe breaks the glass ceiling that continues to bar female talent from getting to the top in Europe’s listed companies. I will work closely with the European Parliament and all member states to bring about change.”

The Commission says there are big differences between EU countries on the gender issue, with women making up 27% of boards in the largest Finnish companies and 26% in Latvia, but only 3% in Malta and 4% in Cyprus.

Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain are among the countries that have introduced gender quotas for companies.

Apple moves from a period of charismatic leadership under Steve Jobs to more organisational leadership under the more low-key Tim Cook, it is following a managerial tradition that pertains in every successful organisation when the founder entrepreneur retires. As Mr Jobs leaves his chief executive post, attention has rightly been paid to his record as a product and marketing innovator, but less to his management style – which, both good and bad, is inimitable. Along with his enviable aesthetic sense, focus and negotiating prowess came a readiness to humiliate and embarrass others.

To discover the useful lessons of Mr Jobs’s managerial legacy, it is worth depersonalising the company he has built. For instance, Apple is not really one company, but three very different organisations lashed together and devastatingly fit for purpose.

At the top is a small company, a decision-making and innovation group made up of senior executives with specialised knowledge, covering Apple’s products and functions. They live and work in Cupertino in California and are physically clustered close to the offices of Mr Jobs and Mr Cook. They range from the heads of marketing and finance, to the design group, which occupies its own building and workshop. Members of this group take total responsibility for anything that occurs on their watch and are summarily fired if they fail.

The hierarchy around them looks flat, but when they make decisions and issue orders, they expect them to be fulfilled with little questioning. They have no interest in watching 1,000 flowers of innovation bloom all over the company. Employees are not empowered to make a difference. They are expected to do a clearly defined job and do it as well as they can.

Apple’s aversion to big mergers or acquisitions also liberates senior managers from this most tedious, and often disastrous, path to growth.

Within this small group, the principle of “talent density” applies. By having just a few very talented people working very hard you not only get superb work, but also reduce the waste incurred by office politics. It is a principle now very popular in the Valley since it was given a label by Reed Hastings, founder ofNetflix. The idea is that one great employee can do the work of five lesser ones, without the need for bickering, cc’d e-mails and interventions from human resources. Mr Jobs has hired consistently along these lines.

The second company consists of most of the 46,000 other full-time Apple employees, most of whom are in marketing and sales. A surprising number of these are the fresh-faced university graduates sweating it out behind the Genius Bars in Apple’s stores – highly educated yet counting their blessings to have a job.

The third company is made up of the vast armies of contract manufacturing employees across Asia, at companies such as Foxconn, who assemble Apple’s products. This is very much Mr Cook’s creation. As a supply chain expert, he pulled Apple out of manufacturing in the late 1990s, and established these contract relationships. No inventory and no unions have been vital to forcing down Apple’s costs. But it has taken a very different kind of management from that required in either the first or second companies.

Mr Cook uses what he calls Apple’s “mother of all balance sheets”, now stockpiled with $76bn of cash, to exercise control over his suppliers. Rather than owning plants or managing inventory or factory employees, Mr Cook corners the market in existing components, such as flash memory, and finances the expensive and exclusive production of new components so Apple has access to them long before rivals do. Bringing truckloads of cash to the low-margin manufacturing and assembly business buys Apple a lot of loyalty and discipline. Coupled with Apple’s knack for forecasting demand, it allows Mr Cook precise control without ownership, the aspiration of supply chain management.

Apple’s structure allows for rapid decision-making at the top and unwavering discipline and efficient execution at the bottom, both vital in this era of ever faster product cycles. Despite its west coast cool, Apple has long had more in common with a well-drilled army, with the joint chiefs on top, the privates and contractors down below and a strict chain of command binding them together. For that, the detail-minded Mr Cook makes an ideal leader.

As with many highly effective men, it is much easier to know whether one would like to invest in Mr Jobs or buy one of his products than if one would like to work for him. It would be a case of “yes”, to the fascinating demands and the opportunity to succeed on an epic scale, and “no” to the shouting and abuse. I met a Silicon Valley psychologist this year who told me that much of his practice was made up of recovering Apple employees.

The head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has said the global economy is not growing at a fast enough pace and faces a number of risks to recovery.

Christine Lagarde warned a threat of global recession remained and called for coordinated policy action.

She said this should include the mandatory recapitalisation of European banks.

Ms Lagarde was speaking at a US Federal Reserve meeting at Jackson Hole, US.

“Developments this summer have indicated we are in a dangerous new phase,” she said.

“The stakes are clear; we risk seeing the fragile recovery derailed – so we must act now.”

Recession risk

Following on from the financial crisis of 2008/09, growth in the US and Europe remains patchy, while debt worries in both continues to shake market confidence.

“The global economy continues to grow, yet not enough. Some of the main causes of the 2008 crisis have been addressed, yet not adequately,” Ms Lagarde said.

“There remains a path to recovery, but we do not have the luxury of time.”

She said the advanced economies which are struggling must ditch long-term plans for now to bring their debt under control, yet at the same time not introduce austerity measures so fast that it imperils recovery,

“Put simply, macroeconomic policies must support growth,” Ms Lagarde said in her first major policy speech since taking the IMF reins in July.

“Monetary policy also should remain highly accommodative, as the risk of recession outweighs the risk of inflation,”

The French and German leaders have called for “true economic governance” for the eurozone in response to the euro debt crisis.

Speaking at a joint news conference, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Nicolas Sarkozy urged much closer economic and fiscal policy in the eurozone.

Ms Merkel said that further integration would be a “step-by-step” process.

They also advocated a tax on financial transactions to raise more revenues.

Negative reaction

The two leaders said they wanted bi-annual meetings of the 17 heads of the eurozone governments, chaired by Herman van Rompuy, the current president of the European Council.

Markets reacted negatively to the conference, with some investors saying that they were expecting bigger announcements.

In New York, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 1.3% during and after the press conference, which took place after the close of trading in Europe, but recovered later.

Government bonds in the US and Germany – seen as safe havens in any economic downturn – rallied in reaction to the leaders’ comments.

Ms Merkel again played down the chances of introducing “eurobonds” – jointly guaranteed debts of the 17 eurozone governments – as a solution to the crisis.

The idea has been advocated by the Italian finance minister, Giulio Tremonti, as well as billionaire investor George Soros as a way of providing cheap financing to struggling governments while also incentivising them to put their finances in order.

But the German chancellor said she only saw such a move coming at the end of a long process of fiscal union.

Growth fears

Instead, Ms Merkel proposed that a requirement for eurozone members to balance their budgets should be enshrined in each of their constitutions.

“We will regain the lost confidence,” she said. “That is why we go into a phase with a new quality of co-operation within the eurozone.”

In another initiative to increase tax revenues, the leaders advocated harmonising corporate tax rates across the single currency – something likely to be strongly opposed by the low-tax Republic of Ireland.

However, Germany’s insistence on government austerity across the eurozone has been criticised by some economists for undermining the economic recovery.

The two leaders were meeting in Paris in the wake of last week’s turmoil on the financial markets, which came amid fears of a renewed global recession and over the ability of Spain and Italy to repay their debts.

Earlier on Tuesday, Germany revealed that its economy grew by just 0.1% in the three months to June, much more weakly than previously thought.

Germany had been driving the economic recovery in the eurozone.

Both French and German leaders, along with the European Central Bank, are putting pressure on so-called peripheral economies to extend austerity measures to try to balance their budgets.

Major economies are also making cuts – Italy announced tougher austerity measures designed to reduce its budget deficit on Friday, while Spain has also said it will speed up spending cuts.

However, there are fears that spending cuts by governments – something strongly advocated by Germany – will undermine overall economic growth.

In an article published in the Financial Times newspaper, the head of the International Monetary Fund, Christine Lagarde, warned governments that they must balance spending cuts with measures to support growth to avoid the risk of a double-dip recession.

Ms Lagarde acknowledged the need for governments to reduce debt levels, but said “slamming on the brakes too quickly would hurt the recovery and worsen job prospects”.

The European Central Bank is due to hold emergency talks on whether to start buying Italian debt to contain spreading turmoil on financial markets.

The BBC’s Business Editor Robert Peston says the ECB is split on the move.

Growing worries over debt in the eurozone and the US caused sharp falls on world stock markets last week.

Finance ministers from the G7 major economic powers are also to hold emergency talks on how to calm the markets before they reopen on Monday.

The governing council of the ECB, which includes the central bank governors of all 17 eurozone countries, will hold a telephone conference on Sunday afternoon, the BBC has learned.

According to an ECB source cited by Reuters news agency, the bank’s president Jean-Claude Trichet wants a final decision on whether to buy Italian debt to be made at the meeting.

Meanwhile, Middle East markets, which are open for trading on Sunday, lost ground, with Israel’s main exchange dropping by about 7%.

There are fears that unless leaders can announce a decisive plan of action before Asian and European markets open on Monday, global shares could plunge even further.

Monday will also be the first day major markets are open following the decision by credit rating agency Standard & Poor’s to downgrade US government debt.

According to Reuters, S&P managing director John Chambers said on Sunday there was one in three chance of a further downgrade in the next six months to two years.

Low growth

Italy is the latest and biggest economy to be hit by the eurozone crisis.

The price Italy pays on its government bonds has shot up amid growing doubts it can keep its debt level so high while economic growth is so slow.

Spain, too, has been caught up in the crisis – hammered by high unemployment, high government debt and anaemic growth.

The high levels of debt coupled with low growth and an uncertain response among eurozone leaders to the crisis has sparked fears that both countries could become engulfed in the same cycle which has led to Greece, the Irish Republic and Portugal already being bailed out.

Last week, European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said authorities in the eurozone were failing to prevent the sovereign debt crisis from spreading.

Both Italy and Spain insist they can service their debt.

On Friday, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said he was bringing forward austerity measures and would balance the government budget by 2013, one year ahead of schedule.

Last week, the gap between German bonds – seen as the safest in Europe – and Spanish and Italian debt reached a record high since the euro was introduced in 1999.

There have been rumours that the ECB was preparing to buy Spanish and Italian bonds to try to help those countries. Last week the ECB bought Irish and Portuguese bonds but did not include Spanish and Italian debt in its purchases.

The BBC’s Business Editor Robert Peston says the ECB’s governing council is divided on whether to buy Italian bonds.

A decision not to buy would risk further turmoil in share and bond markets on Monday, he says.

Some analysts argue that investors expected the bank to buy Italian and Spanish debt soon after the eurozone leaders summit on 21 July, and the fact that it has not has undermined confidence in the markets.

Not impressed

S&P ratings (selected)

  • AAA: UK, France, Germany, Canada, Australia
  • AA+: USA, Belgium, New Zealand
  • AA: Spain, Bermuda
  • AA-: Japan, China
  • A+: Italy, Chile, Slovakia
  • BBB-: Portugal, Iceland, Morocco
  • CC: Greece

Source: S&P

Finance ministers and central bankers from the G7 are to hold emergency talks by telephone before markets open in East Asia on Monday morning, aiming to craft a global response on the eurozone debt crisis and ease fears over rating agency Standard & Poor’s downgrading of US credit-worthiness.

The rating agency Standard & Poor’s (S&P) on Friday downgraded America’s top-notch AAA rating to AA+.

S&P, one of the world’s three major rating agencies, failed to be impressed by a last-minute deal in the US last week to raise the US debt limit by up to $2.4tn (£1.5tn) from $14.3tn.

It staved off a potential US government default on its debt but was only achieved after months of wrangling between Democrats and Republicans in Congress.

The credit rating downgrade is seen as a major embarrassment for President Obama’s administration. It could also raise the cost of US government borrowing.

An economic adviser to the White House condemned the S&P move.

“It smacked of an institution starting with a conclusion and shaping any argument to fit,” said Gene Sperling, the head of President Obama’s National Economic Council.

White House spokesman Jay Carney said on Saturday that last week’s debt deal had been “an important step in the right direction”, but that “the path to getting there took too long and was at times too divisive”.

He said the US must now “do better”.

Cyprus President Demetris Christofias has appointed a new cabinet, installing economist Kikis Kazamias as finance minister.

The previous cabinet had resigned on 28 July amid an energy crisis triggered by a blast that destroyed the island’s main power station.

Centre-right party Diko then pulled out of the coalition with the communists over differences on economic policy.

Cyprus risks becoming the fourth eurozone economy to seek a bailout.

Ratings agencies Fitch’s, Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s have all downgraded the island’s credit rating this year, with its banking sector holding between 4.5bn and 5bn euros ($6.4-7bn; £4-4.4bn) of Greek debt.

The Cypriot economy’s growth prospects have suffered as a result of rolling power cuts since the Vassilikos plant blew up on 11 July, when a cargo of confiscated Iranian munitions exploded at a nearby military base.

Austerity measuresMoody’s lowered its growth forecast for the island to zero for this year and 1% next year, while opposition parties accused the government of backtracking on planned financial reforms and austerity measures.

However, Mr Kazamias told Reuters: “What I hope is for sensibility and consensus to prevail. The problems affect the whole country – no-one is exempted.”

The communist AKEL party is now in a clear minority in parliament, with only 19 deputies in the 56-member House of Representatives, making it difficult to pass legislation.

Other appointments to cabinet were Erato Kozakou as foreign minister and Demetris Eliades as defence minister.

Neoclis Sylikiotis retains his post as interior minister, Sotiroulla Charalambous stays as labour minister and Loukas Louka remains in charge of justice.

Deutsche Telekom has reported a big fall in its profits as a result of restructuring costs and poor results from its Greek businesses.

Net profit for the three months to the end of June were 348m euros ($498m; £304m), which was 26.7% down on the same period last year.

Restructuring costs came from putting T-Mobile UK into a joint venture with France Telecom‘s Orange.

Profits fell “significantly” in Greece due to the economic situation.

“Although these figures are not a cause for celebration, they still give us reason to be confident that we will achieve our targets in a persistently difficult environment,” said Deutsche Telekom chief executive Rene Obermann.

Despite falling profits in the first half of the year, the company has maintained its forecasts for the full year.

Adidas has raised its forecasts for 2011 after reporting strong figures for the three months to the end of June.

Net profits for the quarter came in at 140m euros ($200m; £122m), up 11% from the same period last year.

Adidas is predicting record earnings for the full year, despite 2011 not being an Olympic or World Cup year.

It is now forecasting earnings per share of between 3.10 euros and 3.12 euros, having previously said they could be as low as 2.98 per share.

The top of the range would represent a 15% increase from 2010’s figure of 2.71 euros per share.

Major sportswear companies tend to do better in years with major tournaments.

“High exposure to fast-growing emerging markets, the further expansion of retail as well as continued momentum at all key brands will more than offset the non-recurrence of sales related to the 2010 FIFA World Cup,” the company said.

Sales were particularly strong in China, where they rose 41%, excluding currency effects.